In most cases the observed level of EPCs Lifjeld et al. Therefore, between 7 and 26 Augustbehavioral observations were only collected between h and h and between h and h. However, due to the extremely small sample size and hence the ability to detect a significant difference, the power of the Wilcoxon test was calculated and determined to be low. Gowaty provided valuable comments. These results are most consistent with mate-appraisal and epiphenomenal hypotheses. Latest Most Read Most Cited The effects of experimental design on mating preferences and reproductive isolation in killifish. We calculated band-sharing coefficients S; Lynch,between parent—offspring dyads, offspring—offspring dyads, and among presumably unrelated birds.
Despite pair-bonding behavior, not all within-pair copulation attempts succeeded; often the female rejected the male's initial attempts at mating or the mating was incomplete.
The Nude Female Figure
However, due to the extremely small sample size and hence the ability to detect a significant difference, the power of the Wilcoxon test was calculated and determined to be low. We collected blood from 21 penguin families 42 adults and 49 chicks. Probability of assigning an unrelated male as father p u f. Only one other study has reported such results. His choice then is either to abandon the clutch for the year, guaranteeing that the offspring at the nest will perish, or to provide parental care to offspring of uncertain paternity. The reserve is protected by a 3. See all books by Mark Edward Smith.